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A New   In 1858 the British government bought

Colony. back Vancouver and took away the privileges of the Hudson's Bay Company in the country west of the Rocky Alountains, and New Caledonia became the province of British Columbia. Its first ruler was James Douglas, who continued to be governor of Vancouver, but now broke off his connection with the Hudson's Bay

Company. He was very popular

a n d w a s afterwards knighted.

Money was raised for the expenses

of government, and for road-mak-

ing and other public works, from

the sale of crown lands. In 1859

the first buildings were put up in


~. ,.,      the capital, which was afterwards
named New Westminster.

<>   At this time life in

Justice.   the colony was rough

SIR MATTHEW DEGBIE. and wild. In the mining camps

there was much drinking, gambling, and quarrelling, and many of the white men were as lawless as the Indians, who tried to prevent their going up the rivers. But in 1858 Dlatthew Begbie was appointed chief justice of British Columbia, and by his fairness and firmness soon taught the people to respect the law.

Disappoint- A season of disappointment followed the ment. first great excitement, though a few men made fortunes. Within six months a number of the adventurers had left British Columbia; but the roads made to the mining camps opened tip the country, which is rich in many things besides gold. In 1861 the discovery of new gold-fields revived the excitement.

Another boundary dispute had arisen be-San Juan. tween England and the United States. The Treaty of Oregon had left uncertain the ownership of the little island of San Juan, between Vancouver and the

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