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George Brown, a Scotchman, was the leader of this party. He had lived in Toronto for a number of years, and in 1844 had begun to publish a Reform newspaper called the Globe. His forcible articles gave him great influence, but he made many enemies, especially amongst the French Canadians. IIe entered parliament in 1852.

Representa- 11-1 1853 the number

tion by   of members of the

Population. assembly was in-

creased creased from forty-two to sixty-

five for each of the old provinces

of Canada. Brown and his follow-

ers opposed this act, on the ground

that Upper Canada, which now had

a larger population than Lower

Canada, ought to have more mem-

bers. Thus began an agitation,

which lasted for years, for repre-

GFORGE BROWN. sentation by population, or "rep. by pop.," as it was often called. The French Canadians naturally- thought that a change ,votild not be fair, for at first they had outnumbered the people of -`pper Canada. The Crimean Early in 1854, for reasons not belonging to

war• this history, England, France, and Turkey began to fight against Russia, a great grain-growing country. This interfered with England's usual food sup-plies, and caused a great demand for colonial farm produce. The result was that prices rose high, and trade prospered in all the provinces.

The Reci-   In the same year, 1854, the Reciprocity

procity   Treaty, as it is generally called, was

Treaty. arranged between the United States and Canada. Its chief provisions were that;, each country was to admit from the other farm produce, fish, and certain other articles, duty free;--.that both Americans and

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