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for themselves as had the Loyalists before them. Some, indeed, unused to hard work, ill-provided tyith food, and living in rough, badly-built little shanties, suffered grievously during the first winter or two v

Means or   The roads

Travelling,   we r e gener-

ally poor. Indeed, the "main streets" of some towns were so badly made that, in the spring, oxen were often hired to help draw a heavily-laden wag-

r-7Z.   gon over a muddy spot.


In 1816 the stage-coach

leaving Toronto on Monday was thought to have made good speed if it reached Niagara on Thursday. In the same year a coach began to run between Halifax and Windsor in Nova Scotia. It took nearly a month to send letters from Halifax to Toronto, so it is not surprising that the news published in the papers was sometimes several weeks old.

The people, however, were trying to improve the means of travelling. Before 1833 the lVelland Canal, between Lakes Erie and Ontario; the Rideau Canal, from the Ottawa to Lake Ontario, and several other canals had been made. They were a great benefit to many of the farmers, enabling them to send their grain to better markets than they could reach by road.

In 1836 the first Canadian railway, fourteen miles long; was opened between Laprairie, near Montreal, and St. John's, on the Richelieu. Three years later a steam-engine was used to draw coal from the Albion mines to New Glasgow. These two little lines were then the only railways in British North America.

But though steam-engines were so little used on land, many steamboats were already afloat. The second steam-


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