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Sir James   In 1807 Sir James Craig became governor-

Craig. general. He was a good soldier, but his manners were harsh, and he took no trouble to please the French Canadians. This widened the division between them and the English.

Judges in Soon after Craig's coming there was a bitter Parliament. struggle as to the right of judges to sit in parliament. It was thought their decisions were less likely to be fair if they mixed in party strife; but judges sat in the assemblies of both Canadas. In 18o8 a bill was brought into the assembly of Lower Canada to shut out the judges. They fought fiercely for their seats. Craig twice dissolved the assembly, but the people would not give way. At last the British government declared that the judges must not sit in parliament.

Payment of While the quarrel about the judges was the Officials. still going on, Craig asked the assembly to provide more money for the expenses of government. It promptly offered to pay the government officials, hoping thus to gain control over them. But the offer was not accepted, and the salaries were paid, as before, from money received from the sale of wild lands and from duties placed by the British government on goods brought into Canada. With this the assembly could not interfere, but to meet the cost of making bridges and roads, and putting up public buildings, it was allowed to tax the



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