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supplies of money; but at that time only a small part of the money needful for the government depended on their votes.

The Gover- The governor generally acted as his counnor and the cillors wished, but if there was a difference Councils.   of opinion between him and them, he

usually had to give way. A new governor naturally looked to his councillors—who had, perhaps, spent most of their lives in the country—for information and advice, and thus often fell completely under their control. To make matters worse, the councillors generally had influence with the British government, and so were able to prevent inquiries into their doings.

New The struggle began early in New Bruns-Brunswick. wick. There was a long fight over the question whether or not members of the assembly should be paid, but at last the assembly carried its point.

In 1803 Colonel Thomas Carleton returned to England, and for a number of years the government was very unsettled. Carleton had spent nineteen years in New Brunswick. and had seen great changes. Shipbuilding and the trade in lumber were becoming important. But churches and schools were scarce, and there were no good roads. Little land was farmed, and food was dear. The moose-deer, which had been most useful to the early settlers, were nearly all killed.

Nova   Nova Scotia was now under the rule of Sir

Scotia. John Wentworth, and he strongly objected to the people holding meetings or discussing the affairs of the country. During the French war privateers did some mischief along the coasts, but at Halifax the coming and going of troops and fleets made trade brisk and money plentiful.

Lower   Meantime, in Lower Canada discontent was

Canada.   slowly rising, for the French complained

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