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CHAPTER X.
SOCIAL CONDITIONS ABOUT 1791.

Population. people in Upper, and nearly one hundred and fifty thousand in Lower Canada, of whom less than one-tenth were of British descent. The population had

much more than doubled since 176o; while that of the Maritime Provinces (as Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island are some-times called) had also greatly in-creased.

The French Canadians disliked change. Their manners and customs had altered little during the thirty years of British rule, and this chapter will deal chiefly with those of the Loyalists.

After the government ceased to help them, most of the Loyalists, in the

country at least, made almost everything for themselves. When heavy work had to be done, neighbours helped one another, holding what was called a " bee." Few people had hired servants, but many of the richer people owned negro slaves, and not a few of the Loyalists brought slaves with them from their old homes.

By means of the "bee " a rough log-Houses. house was often built in five or six days. The floor was made of logs split and laid flat side upper-most. Instead of a stove was a " fire-back," or wall of small boulders or stones, built with clay for mortar, and

In 1791 there were about twelve thousand

A LADY OF 1775.

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