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THE END OI' THE WAR.   131

Ticonderoga. After this he pushed on far into the enemy's country, hoping to be met by General Howe with a British army from New York. But Howe did not come, and Burgoyne, when trying to retreat, was hemmed in by his enemies at Saratoga, and he and all his troops were forced to yield as prisoners of war. Soon afterwards England sent out men to try to make up the quarrel with the Americans, but it was too late. The colonies would be satisfied with nothing less than complete freedom, though they had great difficulty in continuing the war.

But France had not forgiven the loss of Canada, and now she began to help the Americans with ships, men, and money. A little later Spain and Holland joined in the war against England.

Governor In June, 1778, Sir Guy Carleton returned Haidimand, to England, and General Haldimand, a Swiss, became governor of Canada. Some people thought him harsh, but he was obliged to be strict, for the province was in danger both from within and with-out. When France joined in the war, papers were fixed on the doors of the churches throughout Canada, urging the French Canadians, by their love for France, to rise against their English rulers. On the other hand, the English-speaking people were still angry about the Quebec Act, and Americans from the revolted colonies were trying to stir them up to rebel. Haldimand built several new forts to guard Canada from invasion, and put in prison a number of persons suspected of plotting against England. IIe obliged the habitants to work for the government, as in French times, but paid them for their labour. So that the people might travel more easily up the St. Lawrence, he made several small canals by which boats could pass the rapids above Montreal. These were the first canals made in Canada.


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