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The Declara- On July 4th, 1776, the Thirteen Colonies

tion of Inde- then fighting against England made a pendence.

Declaration of Independence—that is, they declared themselves to be entirely free from their mothercountry—and since then they have been called the United States of America. The British, however, re-fused to recognize their independence, and the war was continued for some years longer.

Events in   The Revolutionary War, as it is known in

Canada. history, delayed the trial of the new plans laid down in the Quebec Act for the government of Canada. In 1777 the legislative council (as it was called, because it had the power to legislate or make laws) sat for the first time; the English trade laws came into force; and courts of justice were set up. The people were told that when they were not satisfied with what the judges of these courts had done, they might ask the legislative council to try their cases again. ■ But the councillors knew so little of the French laws that they were not fit to decide difficult cases; and sometimes even vet there was great confusion over the two kinds of law, French and English.

Burgoyne's In this year (1777) a British army was sent Surrender. from Canada to invade New York. The command was given to General Burgoyne, who had lately come from England. He was a brave man, but not a good leader. At first, however, he had a little success. He took


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