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card, stamped with the arms of France and Navarre in separate shields, took the place of these. It was promised that real money should be given for these bits of card, but it was so difficult to get that the people were afraid to sell their goods.

The towns, which were often visited by the Towns. smallpox, were dirty. In Montreal the earth from making new cellars, and far worse rubbish,

was left in the streets

till at last the citizens were set to work with horses and carts to clear it all away. Many fires took place, and when the alarm sounded people ran with buckets from all parts of the town. But the burning of the old buildings was not an unmixed evil, for much better ones were often put up in their places. After a

great fire in Montreal the governor ordered that only stone houses should be built, and that if the owner could only afford one storey at first, he must add a second within two years.

Courts of   The laws against evil-doers were terribly

Justice. severe. Death was the punishment for many small offences. The accused person was not tried by a jury, but was completely at the mercy of the judge. He had no lawyers to help him, and sometimes men

were cruelly tortured to make them confess their guilt. --AA'



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