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CHAPTER XIV.
SOCIAL CONDITIONS UNDER THE FRENCH
KINGS.

The Ncarly a hundred years had gone by since Population, the king of France took the government of Canada upon himself. During this time great changes had taken place. Instead of only two thousand five hundred white people, there were in 176o about sixty thousand in what was then called Canada, and perhaps twenty thousand more in the rest of the country now forming the Dominion.

Education   Few of the Canadians could either read or

and   write, and hardly any had studied history

Literature. or geography. The priests and nuns were still the only teachers. There was no printing pres_4 in Canada, and even the laws made by the governor were written out by hand. As for the literature of the time, it still chiefly consisted of the narratives of travellers; and perhaps the most valuable book written during this period was the Jesuit Charlevoix's " History and Description of New France."

Manners   The people had free-and-easy manners ;

and Dress, the children were spoiled and unruly. All classes were fond of gaiety, and there were many public holidays. New Year's Day and the seven following days were spent in visiting. The ladies were bright and clever, and when in company wore very fine clothes. At one time it was the custom for both men and women to cover their hair with white powder, so that even young people looked as if they had grey heads.

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