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46   CANADIAN HISTORY 1OR BOYS AND GIRLS.

 

there was not another one in the country, so it must have been regarded as a curiosity. As there were no horses or railways, the people travelled by canoes in summer and on snowshoes in winter.

Money and All manufactured articles were sent from Trade. France, and the only exports were furs and fish. Gold or silver money was very scarce. Wheat and beaver-skins were sometimes used in its place, but people generally exchanged one kind of goods for an-other. The wages of a man for a year equalled about twenty dollars of our present money. There were no female servants in the colony—indeed there were very few women of any rank.

Education   Education was not neglected in this period.

and The priests and nuns opened schools for Literature. the Indians and the few children of the colony ; and Bishop Laval founded the Quebec Seminary, of which, nearly two centuries later, Laval University was an outgrowth. As a rule, the colonists had little leisure for study, but a few books, chiefly belonging to the class of travels, were written. The works of Champlain and Lescarbot have been mentioned already ; but besides these many of the missionaries wrote very interesting accounts of the country: and the " Relations " of the Jesuits in Canada alone form a library of many volumes. It is largely due to these early writers that Parkman, Roberts, and other modern authors have been able to paint for us their vivid word-pictures of the lives led by the Canadians of old.

Religion and The influence of the missionaries was Morals. very strong over all the people. The church festivals were the great days for amusements. For instance, that of St. Joseph, the patron saint of New France, was marked by a great display of fireworks. In Quebec and Montreal the priests sternly put down drunk-


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