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Indians. In spite of great fire-places they were very cold. The snow drifted through the cracks in the log walls, and sometimes had to be shovelled out of the sleeping-rooms. The beds of the nuns at Sillery were " closed up with boards, like great chests." When they arrived at Quebec, the only furniture of their lodgings was a rough table and two benches. In those days the tide washed nearly to the foot of the rock at Quebec, and the religious houses, the hospitals, and the church were all on the heights. Amongst them rose Champlain's turreted fort of St. Louis, built of stone, with lime brought from France, and surrounded by thick walls of logs and earth. In Montreal the mill was fortified, and served to protect the settlement as well as to grind its corn.

Dress.   No doubt the governors and their attend-

ants tried to follow in their dress the ever-changing fashions of the cities they had left. So we may picture Quebec, on holidays at least, gay with gentle-men in gorgeous silks and velvets ; Indians in furs, wampum and feathers ; and traders in finery almost as savage, contrasting sharply with the black and grey gowns of the missionaries.

The colonists, both in Canada and Acadia,


preferred hunting and fishing to farming. It was indeed difficult to clear the land. Till 1628 there was not a plough in the country. Both bread and vegetables were dear, and settlers were advised to bring with them enough flour to last for two years. Near the St. Lawrence eels were much used, especially by the poor. They sold in the market at about twenty-five cents per hundred, and were often smoked in the Indian fashion for winter.

Domestic   A few sheep, cows, and pigs were sent to

Animals.   Canada in 1608. Forty years later one of the governors brought out a horse. For seventeen years

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