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Indian Wars. When the snow melted, Champlain set out

to explore the country to 'the west. He hoped to find an easy way to China, which he thought much nearer than it really is. But the war-parties of the Iroquois forced him to turn back, for, though their homes were in what is now New York State, they made

cruel raids every spring on the

'~   ;,   weak Algonquins, and even on

~;   the Hurons, who were of the

same race as themselves. To the

great delight of the tribes near

Quebec, Champlain offered to

help to fight their dreaded foes;

but the Iroquois never forgave

him, and in after years the

French colonists suffered terribly

at their hands.

Champlain took with him eleven Frenchmen and a number

of Indians. For many days they marched through the wilderness. At last they came upon a party of Iroquois who carried shields of skin and wore curious armour of twigs interwoven with cords. But it was of no use against the French bullets, and, terrified by the dreadful smoke and noise of the guns, they fled, leaving their dead and wounded behind them. Champlain tried to prevent any cruelty, but, as usual, the Indian victors scalped and tortured their helpless foes.

Champlain's In the midst of all his other business, Difficulties. Champlain was often obliged to go to France. He was beset with difficulties, arising chiefly from the state of the fur trade, which was sometimes free to everybody, and sometimes under the control of a single man or company. At this time the king generally put some great noble, who was called the viceroy,



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