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Samuel de About the year 16o3 a company of French-Champlain. men banded together for the colonization of Canada and the conversion of the Indians to Christianity. In return the king gave them a monopoly of the fur trade—that is, he said that they, and no one else, might buy and sell furs in Canada: One member of this company did so much for Canada that he has been called the Father of New France. His name was Samuel de Champlain. He was about thirty-six years of age. He had been a soldier, a captain in the Royal Navy of France, and a traveller. On his journeys he kept a diary in which he drew curious pictures of the things he saw ; and thus a great deal of what we know about Champlain has come down to us from his own pen.

Champlain was chosen to explore the country, so he crossed the ocean in a tiny vessel, and sailed up the St. Lawrence as far as Cartier's Mont Royale. He found no trace of the Indian towns Cartier had described. He tried to make his way up the rapids above Mont Royale, and eagerly questioned the few Indians he met concerning the country beyond. But several years passed before he was able to make use of what he learned about Canada.

A Settle-   In 1604 a nobleman named De Monts Be-

ment in   came head of the company. Instead of

Acadia. sending settlers to the St. Lawrence, he wished to found a colony in Acadia, as the country now forming Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and part of Maine was then called. The rival fur-traders were

a   I7

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