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AFTER THE BATTLE   Io5

Ramezay's council of officers coincided, and on the fourth day the white flag was displayed on the Citadel, though with the mortified protest of a few, including de Levis, who was present. Conditions, however, were drawn up and signed by Townshend, de Ramezay, and Admiral Saunders, favourable to the Canadians, who were to have protection of person and property, and the free exercise of their language, religion, and later much of the civil law. Under the new regime the French criminal code was held to be too severe, and was therefore abolished. Upon the signing of the articles, the British troops from the Plains defiled in order through the St. Louis Gate, and the Union Jack was run up on the Citadel. The capital of New France had passed into the hands of the victors.

In England former news had filled the public mind with gloom and apprehension. General Wolfe's last letter to the Prime Minister had been sent in a kind of resolute despair, pointing out his all but hopeless expectations. Horace Walpole, writing to his friend Mann, ambassador at Florence, faced the situation in an unusually serious frame of mind :

"Two days ago came letters from Wolfe, despairing as much as heroes can despair. Quebec

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