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THE FALL OF QUEBEC   83

of the three brigadiers, Monckton, Townshend, and Murray, the first and last of whom proved true friends and capable officers throughout. In the estimation of to-day it is a small army.

From the earliest spring of 1759 the old grey town on the St. Lawrence had been in a state of commotion, if not ferment. The Citadel was no maiden fortress, but for all that had no mind to be taken peaceably. Exactly one hundred and thirty years previously she had been audaciously seized, ostensibly for the British crown, by the Kirkes, father and son, and though re-turned in 1633 to her rightful owners, bore no happy memory of the event. Quebec herself appeared a comparatively simple matter to de-fend, apart from the great extent of country, but the various approaches formed a perplexing problem. The main avenues were the war-worn path at Ticonderoga, to be held by Bourlamaque against encroachments from the south, while La Coyne St. Luc entrenched himself among the islands at the head of the St. Lawrence rapids to keep the approach from Lake Ontario. The vast distances between these points rendered connection or even communication very difficult.

For the recruiting of the main body every exertion was made. No stone was left un-


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