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32 CANADA AND HER BRITISH

out in an easterly direction in shoals and reefs, leaving the entrance of the fine harbour not quite half a mile wide. The passage was overlooked by a powerful defence called the " Island Battery," built on an isolated rock on the west side of the channel, and by another outwork named the " Royal," or " Grand Battery," at the base of the harbour, so that an enemy trying to force an entrance would receive a front attack from the one battery and a flank fire from the other. The strongest portion of the fort proper was on the land side, where a ditch eighty feet wide and at least thirty feet deep, and a rampart of earth sixty feet thick, faced with masonry, extended across the entire width of the little peninsula, cutting it off from the mainland. An additional and highly valued safeguard was the wide salt marsh towards which the glacis sloped, and the only roads entered through the portcullised west and south gates, overlooked respectively by the Dauphin and Princess bastions. The main fortifications had embrasures for one hundred and forty-eight cannon, but these had never been fully equipped, and, at the end of the siege, the number was variously stated as from seventy-six to ninety, while those on the outlying batteries comprised thirty pieces each of heavy ordnance.


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