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2   THE RENUNCIATION OF

Upper and the Lower St. Lawrence, and the Iroquois country, by way of Lake Champlain and the River Richelieu. Montreal consisted of some forty small compact houses, running parallel at some little distance to the river. On the left of the line was situated a fort of masonry, and on the rising ground to the right a substantial stone windmill, enclosed by a wall or palisade, loopholed for musketry, which answered the purposes of a second fortification. Round about for some distance stretched fields, as yet very imperfectly cleared, among whose charred and decaying stumps were annually reaped luxuriant harvests, for climate and soil had already proved themselves admirable producers. In the back-ground from east to west extended a deep ravine, through which ran a gurgling stream, and above all, like a couchant lion, rose Jacques Cartier's Mont Royale, covered to its summit with impenetrable forest.

All the recent news from their beloved mother country had tended to fill the hearts of the settlers with joy, for at last there was peace throughout Europe, and every subject of His Most Christian Majesty basked in the triumphs and virtues of their invincible monarch.

Very different, however, were affairs in Canada.


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